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Wine is probably the oldest alcoholic beverage in the world. It is made by fermenting grape juice and aging in order to get its characteristics.

Making Wine


There are many different varieties of grapes used to make Wine, however the best is the European Vitis Vinifera which is considered optimal because of its right balance of sugar and acid. These particular features create a good fermented wine without the use of additional sugar or water. As example we have: Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot.

Varietal Wine

A varietal wine is made from one predominant grape variety, usually as minimum of 75% or 85%. 

Blended Wine

A blended wine is made from different grape varieties of the same vintage.


Grapes that were all grown and harvested in a single specified year.

Some wines are made from hybrid grapes, which are genetic crossings of two species, most of them are native to North America.

Fermenting Process

Grapes are crushed by stomping them with machines in big vats, stems are removed, the resulting juice is fermented using various types of yeast, which consumes the sugars and converts them into alcohol. If the amount of alcohol is relatively low, the result is Wine. During fermentation, wine stays in either in wooden barrels or stainless steel tanks inside of controlled-temperature chambers.

Some winemakers may choose to allow a second fermentation or 'malolactic fermentation' because during this process, the malic acid contained in the grape juice breaks down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid adding additional flavor to the wine, sometimes denoting apples aroma.

Filtering or Fining

After fermentation, wine is goes through a clarification process where it's filtered to remove any left residual yeast or material. This process is also known as fining.


Wine is now stored in wooden barrels, most commonly made from oak to give its final aroma and flavor for periods of several months to several years. During this process, wines are sometimes blended to improve the desired characteristics. For example, Merlot blended into Cabernet Sauvignon to give it a more mellow taste.

From there, wine is bottled and ready for consumption.

Wine Classification

Wine is classified in different ways depending sometimes on the country of origin, or type of grape. At the end, there are always 3 main categories:

Table Wines

Sparkling Wines

Fortified Wines

Fruit Wines